How to Use Italics
You don't have to be Italian.
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No Italics Necessary
You’re probably not going to be able to remember all the times you’re supposed to use italics, so keep your style guide handy.
Strangely enough, the names of long sacred works such as the Bible or the Koran do not take italics (1). You just use regular roman type for those. And for chapters of larger works or episodes of a TV show, for example, you surround the chapter or episode name with quotation marks (3). So if you were talking about the second chapter of the well-known writing book On Writing Well by William Zinsser, for example, you would put the book title in italics and the chapter name, “Simplicity,” in quotation marks.
In addition, you’re not supposed to put the word “the” in italics when it is part of a newspaper name (1). So if you were referring to the New York Times, the word “the” would be in regular type but the other three words would be in italics.
You might be wondering what to do with punctuation marks around something in italics. In the past, you put them in italics, too, but according to the American Heritage Guide to Contemporary Usage and Style “A simpler, alternative system is to put these punctuation marks in the same typeface as the main or surrounding text” (3). So if you said, “My favorite book is Oliver Twist [period],” the title of the book would be in italics but the period at the end of the sentence would be in regular roman type.
We’ve seen lots of rules where you must italicize something. Now let’s talk about a couple of places where it’s up to the writer. I mentioned earlier that you’re supposed to put foreign words in italics. You italicize these foreign words if they are somewhat unfamiliar to readers (4). If, on the other hand, a foreign word has been used so much that it has become part of English, you use regular type. Sometimes, though, it’s not so clear if the general public will know the foreign term. So, according to the Guide to Grammar and Writing (2), it is often “a matter of private judgment and context.” Most likely you would not italicize a common foreign phrase such as “vice versa,” but you probably would put sotto voce in italics. You as the writer get to decide based on the context and your audience.
Lastly, we use italics to emphasize something. Garner, a well-trusted grammar source, says about an older-generation grammarian, “H.W. Fowler cautioned that many people, though competent in their own special subject, don’t have enough writing experience to realize that they shouldn’t try to achieve emphasis by italicizing something in every tenth sentence. With experience comes the competence to frame sentences so that emphatic words fall in emphatic places” (4). Garner therefore advises us to use italics for emphasis sparingly. If you overuse italics, then nothing will stand out.
Another modern point that often isn't addressed yet by style guides is that italics can be hard to read on a computer screen, so often, when you are given the option, it's better to use quotation marks to highlight text rather than italics when you're writing for the Web. That's why we usually enclose words and letters in quotation marks in the Grammar Girl transcripts instead of using italics.
With italics, it’s important to follow the style guide used at your business or school. If you don’t follow a particular style guide, though, just pick a format and be consistent.
The Curious Case of the Misplaced Modifier
This podcast was written by Bonnie Trenga, author of The Curious Case of the Misplaced Modifier, who blogs at sentencesleuth.blogspot.com, and read in the podcast by Mignon Fogarty, the author of the The Grammar Devotional.