Why Do We Call People Redheads Instead of Orangeheads?
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Pumpkins were first grown in North America, which means that Europeans had never heard of them until there started to be lots of contact between these two continents. So that would be 1492 at the very earliest, but Columbus was traveling mostly between the Caribbean, where there aren’t a lot of pumpkins, and Spain, where there isn’t a lot of English. So the word pumpkin doesn't show up in English until the 1640s (There is a related term, pumpion, which dates from the 1540s and was used for both melons and pumpkins, but these come in several colors so they’re probably not good sources for unambiguous color terms).
This also explains why melon wasn't chosen, since there are several colors of melon. Cantaloupe isn't used in English until 1739, which is much too late.
So what about carrot? This word is pretty old, coming into English in the 1530s from the Greek karoton via Latin carota. But there are two problems: first, oranges as a food had been around English-speakers for about 200 years already, and second, the earliest carrots were in fact, not orange. They were purple.
You can actually still find purple carrots (and purple beans and purple potatoes) at many farmers' markets today, but at the time when English-speakers started eating them, purple carrots were totally normal, and red and yellow carrots weren’t that surprising either.
Orange carrots didn’t start getting common until the Dutch began cultivating them in the 1600s. One rumor has it that this was in honor of William of Orange, but at any rate, when people started saying "orange" for the color in the 1540s, carrots were still this weird purple vegetable and pumpkins and melons were still the same category of food. So orange seemed like the best option.
However, there's another old food term that managed to do quite well for itself as a pretty illogical hair color name….ginger! The food term dates from the mid-fourteenth century via Medieval Latin gingiber, which is from Greek zingiberis and ultimately from Sanskrit.
But ginger root is goldy-yellow, and doesn’t look at all like the hair of Pippi Longstocking or Ron Weasley. Why aren’t we using ginger to mean "blonde"? Speculations range from the fiery tempers associated with redheads to the bright red-pink color of the ginger plant, but there are some questions that etymology cannot answer. Sorry!
This article originally appeared on All Things Linguistic, a blog by Gretchen McCulloch.
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