Why having good citations matters.
Over winter break I saw a capital Beyoncé meme that said, “If you liked it, you should have put a citation on it,” which made me laugh and reminded me of this listener question:
Hi, Grammar Girl. My name is Laura and I am a teacher of 9th-grade English and a big fan of your podcast. I've used your podcast in my classroom and the Quick and Dirty Tips definitely come in handy. My question is how do I cite your podcast and podcasts in general? Do you know of a website that keeps really up to date on how to cite things, especially citing things from the Web?
Thanks, Laura. All three of the major academic style players, the Modern Language Association (MLA), the American Psychological Association (APA), and The Chicago Manual of Style, have issued guidelines on how to cite electronic sources.
The Purdue Online Writing Lab, affectionately known as OWL, has a huge 12-page chart that compares all the different citation types for all three styles. It looks like it was last update in 2014, so I checked all the current styles for citing websites and podcasts and made a small chart with examples:
APA (6th edition)
Fogarty, M. (Host). (2017, January 19). Citing podcasts and websites [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from https://www.quickanddirtytips.com/education/grammar/citing-podcasts-and-websites
Fogarty, M. (2017, January 19). Citing podcasts and websites. Retrieved from https://www.quickanddirtytips.com/education/grammar/citing-podcasts-and-websites
CMS (16th edition)
Fogarty, Mignon. “Citing Podcasts and Websites.” Grammar Girl’s Quick and Dirty Tips for Better Writing, podcast audio. January 19, 2017. https://www.quickanddirtytips.com/education/grammar/citing-podcasts-and-websites.
Fogarty, Mignon. “Citing Podcasts and Websites.” Quick and Dirty Tips. January 19, 2017. Accessed January 25, 2017. https://www.quickanddirtytips.com/education/grammar/citing-podcasts-and-websites
Note 1: The Chicago Manual of Style (16th ed, 14.7) says access dates are not required in Chicago style unless a publication date is unavailable, but it notes that teachers often require students to include an access date in citations. If the access date is included, it comes immediately after the publication date.
Note 2: I was confused about this for a while, so I’ll mention it here to save you time. Chicago puts the last name first in bibliographic entries, but the last name second in numbered notes. Further, items in notes are separated by commas, whereas items in bibliophilic entries are separated by periods. Many of the Chicago examples in sections related to podcasts and websites are formatted as notes and not bibliographic entries.
MLA (8th edition)
Fogarty, Mignon. “Citing Podcasts and Websites.” Grammar Girl’s Quick and Dirty Tips for Better Writing, ep. 552, January 19, 2017, www.quickanddirtytips.com/education/grammar/citing-podcasts-and-websites
Fogarty, Mignon. “Citing Podcasts and Websites.” Quick and Dirty Tips, Macmillan Holdings, LLC, January 19, 2017, www.quickanddirtytips.com/education/grammar/citing-podcasts-and-websites