What is Seitan?
Get the 411 on seitan and its surprising secret ingredient. Is this meat substitute one to try or one to skip?
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Laurel recently requested an episode on seitan: What the heck is it, how does it stack up nutritionally, and how do you eat it?
Seitan is not a new thing. The word (pronounced say-tan) is Japanese and was coined just 50 years ago by one of the proponents of the macrobiotic diet. But the food it refers to has been a staple in Asian cultures for at least 15 centuries. I remember seeing it (but not buying it) at the Food Coop I belonged to as an undergraduate at Boston University. Although that was not quite 15 centuries ago, it was still long before the days of Whole Foods stores and yoga studios on every corner. Back then, food coops (and health food, in general) occupied a sort of a fringe culture left over from the Age of Aquarius.
Today, of course, minimally-processed foods and plant-based diets are relatively mainstream pursuits, so a whole new generation of hipsters and Lulu-lemon-wearing moms are getting acquainted with things like kombucha and seitan. I talked about kombucha just last week in my Nutrition Tips for Fall. This week, I have a quick primer on seitan for you.
What is Seitan?
Seitan is most frequently used as a meat substitute in vegetarian diets. It has a sort of stringy, chewy texture that makes it a fairly good substitute for meat. Unlike some meat substitutes, however, it’s actually a decent source of protein. But the source of the protein might surprise you.
Seitan is made from wheat gluten. Yes, you heard me correctly. This “health food” consists almost entirely of gluten: a substance that a lot of people are going to great lengths to avoid these days. It’s made by rinsing wheat flour dough to dissolve and remove most of the starch and fiber. Eventually, what you have left is a sticky, elastic mass of protein.
Wheat as a Source of Protein
We tend to think of wheat and products made from wheat (such as bread and pasta) as “carbs.” However, people forget that wheat is around 15% protein, mostly in the form of gluten. A slice of wheat bread or serving of pasta contains about 5-10g of protein.
Among all the grains, wheat is actually one of the highest in protein. One unfortunate aspect of a lot of gluten-free products is that they are significantly lower in protein (and higher in carbohydrate) than the wheat-based products they are intended to replace.
But back to seitan: Historically, wheat gluten was a popular source of protein for Buddhists, who are vegetarians. It became an important element of the macrobiotic diet, which dates from the 1930s, and continues to be popular with those following a plant-based diet.
Wheat gluten also turns up frequently as an ingredient in soy-based sausages, burgers, and other meat alternatives. If you’ve every tried Tofurkey, for example (you remember that year in high school when you declared yourself to be a vegetarian and your Mom made you Tofurkey for Thanksgiving?), then you have had wheat gluten.