Skin spots and moles can be quite common and even numerous. Learn who is at higher risk for melanoma and what features are more concerining for this most aggressive type of skin cancer.
Skin concerns are one of the top questions at the doctor’s office. But the most dreaded type of skin condition is melanoma; among the three main types of skin cancers, it is the only potentially life-threatening one. But with so many moles, rashes, and skin lumps and bumps, how can you tell when something is concerning? How can you tell if it’s something that potentially can wait, and when it's something to address with your doctor right away?
What is Melanoma?
Melanoma is a cancer of the skin cells that produce pigment, called “melanin,” that produces color in our skin. Melanoma tends to be less common in those with pigment in their skin—although still possible, of course. The cells go out of whack and overgrow, producing more pigment than they should. And sometimes they go overboard, producing abnormal cells in the process.
There are other types of skin cancers that are less concerning, mainly squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma, which tend to be (thankfully) much more common than melanoma. However, melanoma is the most dreaded type of skin cancer because of its potential to be aggressive and metastasize (spread) to other organs, and hence be life threatening.
Those at higher risk for melanoma often have the following features:
- Light-complexioned skin
- Naturally red or blond hair
- Blue, green, or hazel eyes
- Family history of melanoma
- Having many moles
- Increased sun exposure
ABCDEs of Moles
So how can you distinguish benign from potentially suspicious moles?
The ABCDE’s of moles, of course! Especially if you have risk factors, please become familiar with the following features of moles and check your entire skin from head to toe:
A = Asymmetry: If you were to split the mole in half, would both halves appear the same? Asymmetric moles are more suspicious.
B = Border: Is the border smooth or irregular? Can you easily delineate the border from the surrounding skin? Round, circular moles, with clear borders tend to be less suspicious than those with jagged or irregular borders.
C = Color Variation: Is the color uniform? Typical melanoma often has color variation within the same mole. For instance, it may be light brown but have a speck or area of the mole that is darker within.
D = Diameter: Moles larger than the size of a pencil eraser are also more concerning.
E = Evolving: Any feature of a mole that changes over time should also be looked at. For instance, is the size growing? The color or border changing? Is it now itchy or bleeding?
It can occur in even hard-to-see, less conspicuous areas—such as in the eye, the lips, and the genitals. Melanoma can even occur in a birthmark. Now, these are not the typical “sun exposed” locations of the body that we think of when we think of skin cancer, but melanoma can occur anywhere that there is pigment. The most common location in women is the lower extremities, which means everything from the hips down to the bottom of the feet, in between the toes, or even underneath the nails. And in men, the most common spot is on the back—the most challenging area to see yourself.