A new book argues that eating wheat sets you up for Alzheimer's and other brain diseases. Should you go grain-free? Nutrition Diva reviews the evidence behind this latest theory.
More than Grains Are at Work on Our Brains
Perlmutter goes on to explain that anything that leads to chronically high blood sugar and/or inflammation, can hurt your brain. That list, of course, includes sugar, fruit, grains, trans fats, low-fat diets, smoking, sedentary lifestyle, obesity, stress, and inadequate sleep.
Frankly, it's a lot easier for me to buy the idea that neurological disease is caused by a complex interaction of diet, genetics, environment, and lifestyle choices than it is to buy the idea that one food or food group is killing our brains.
Ironically, the program Perlmutter ultimately lays out is not even grain-free! He allows gluten-free grains such as amaranth, rice, millet, buckwheat and quinoa in moderation. His plan, is, however, very low in carbohydrates and very high in fats. He also stresses the importance of sleep, exercise, and other healthy lifestyle habits.
Does Perlmutter's Program Work?
OK, so maybe the title Grain Brain is a bit of an over-simplification. That happens in publishing sometimes. The real question is whether Perlmutter's program can deliver on his big promise: freedom from migraines, fatigue, ADHD, moodiness, and protection against dementia and Alzheimer's disease?
If you suffer from frequent headaches or other chronic malaise, it might be worth trying.
Regarding headaches and fatigue, the evidence for this program is largely anecdotal. Perlmutter writes of patients who had dramatic improvement from chronic headaches as well as vaguer symptoms like "spaciness." And if you suffer from frequent headaches or other chronic malaise, it might be worth trying. If you get relief, who cares whether anyone has done a placebo-controlled trial - or whether eliminating wheat was the key to the program's effectiveness?
See also: Are Grains to Blame?
But what if you feel just fine now and just want to reduce your risk of Alzheimer's disease in the future? Unfortunately, there isn't a lot of evidence that this approach will prevent these diseases. In fact, there is some evidence to the contrary. We have long-term data, for example, linking the Mediterranean diet (which is neither low carb nor wheat-free) with reduced rates of dementia. People who follow the DASH diet (which is pretty much the exact opposite of Perlmutter's program) also have reduced risk. Unfortunately, data on Alzheimer's in cavemen is pretty spare.
All kidding aside, I wish we knew exactly how to prevent Alzheimer's disease. I'm not saying that Perlmutter's idea is wrong. I'm just saying that it's unproven.
Can You Eat Grains and Be Healthy?
So, where does all this leave us with grains? Pretty much where we started. Here are 4 tips that you've heard from me before:
1. If you don't want to eat grains, you don't have to. Just make sure you're covering those nutritional bases.
2. If you do eat grains, eat them in moderation. This applies to whole grains as well.
See also: The Truth About Whole Grains
3. Enjoy a variety of grains.
See also: How Important is a Varied Diet?
4. Don't forget about the rest of your plate. I think it's overly simplistic to pin a complex disease process on one food or ingredient. Regardless of whether you eat grains or avoid them, what's on the rest of your plate still matters.
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