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Direct and Indirect Quotations

When do you use quotation marks?

By
Mignon Fogarty,

Direct and Indirect Quotations

When should you put single words such as yes and no in quotation marks?

It depends on whether you're quoting exactly what someone said (a direct quotation) or talking about what someone said or might say (an indirect quotation).

If you are directly quoting someone, put the word in quotation marks:

  • Sarah smiled and said, "Yes."
  • I looked up from my desk and said, "No, you can't have a cookie."

If you are indirectly quoting someone, don't put the word in quotation marks:

  • He wondered whether Sarah would say yes.
  • I looked up from my desk and told him no, he couldn't have a cookie.

 Related Articles

Single Quotation Marks Versus Double Quotation Marks
Quotation Marks with Periods and Commas

Examples Using Sentences from Odysseus
 

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About the Author

Mignon Fogarty

Mignon Fogarty is the founder of the Quick and Dirty Tips network and creator of Grammar Girl, which has been named one of Writer's Digest's 101 best websites for writers multiple times. The Grammar Girl podcast has also won Best Education Podcast multiple times in the Podcast Awards, and Mignon is an inductee in the Podcasting Hall of Fame. Mignon is the author of the New York Times best-seller "Grammar Girl's Quick and Dirty Tips for Better Writing" and six other books on writing. She has appeared as a guest on the "Oprah Winfrey Show" and the "Today Show" and has been featured in the New York Times, Business Week, the Washington Post, USA Today, CNN.com, and more. She was previously the chair of media entrepreneurship in the Reynolds School of Journalism in Reno, NV. She hates the phrase "grammar nazi" and loves the word "kerfuffle." She has a B.A. in English from the University of Washington in Seattle and an M.S. in biology from Stanford University. Mignon believes that learning is fun, and the vast rules of grammar are wonderful fodder for lifelong study. 

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