Does Revenge Work? Our Minds on Vengeance

Inequality, privilege, and injustice blare from the headlines. When faced with an unjust world, how do you cope? Do you dwell on unfairness? Or do you stay out of the fray? This week, by request from Melissa in San Francisco, Savvy Psychologist Dr. Ellen Hendriksen reveals the surprising truth about how each of us is wired for justice and revenge.

Ellen Hendriksen, PhD
6-minute read
Episode #208
image of a voodoo doll symbolizing revenge

Listener Melissa writes from San Francisco, "I struggle with letting go of any kind of injustice. Whether it's on the national level such as the unfair treatment of minorities, or something as small as another customer skipping me in line at the store, I really tend to dwell on this wrongdoing." She points out that even though human brains often wander to thoughts of revenge, she doesn’t think she would derive much satisfaction from it. She asked me to riff on injustice and revenge, with a goal of understanding herself (and her fellow humans) a little better.

What Is Justice Sensitivity?

As it turns out, Melissa is not alone in her struggle to let go of injustice, inequity, or unfairness. In fact, it’s a personality trait called justice sensitivity, defined as our awareness of and reactivity to injustice. In other words, it’s how finely tuned our antennae are to corruption, inequality, unfairness, and generally getting screwed.

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The 4 Kinds of Justice Sensitivity

In fact, there are four different types of justice sensitivity.

  1. The first is called victim justice sensitivity, which is constantly staying on the lookout to make sure we don’t get screwed. This vigilance often goes along with anger and a tendency towards revenge.
  2. Next is observer justice sensitivity, which is outrage when observing unfair treatment of others without being directly involved. A recent example of this was the outpouring of protest at the American government on behalf of immigrant families who were being separated at the border. 
  3. Third is perpetrator justice sensitivity, which is an inclination to punish oneself for unjust behaviors in order to assuage guilt or make things right. For example, a Utah man named Reggie Shaw, who was responsible for two deaths in a texting-while-driving accident, has traveled the country ever since speaking out against distracted driving.
  4. Last is beneficiary justice sensitivity, where we experience situations in which we benefit from injustice as aversive. For example, Benedict Cumberbatch made headlines when he announced he would only join projects where his female co-stars received equal pay. 

The important difference among all these types of justice sensitivity is that the first, victim sensitivity, is focused on the self, whereas the other types are focused on others. We’ll circle back to this, so hold tight.

Now, while injustice resonates a little deeper or a little shallower with each of us, all of us have a sense of it. It’s inborn.

The Innate Sense of Justice in Humans

To illustrate, a study out of the University of Washington, using eye-tracking technology, found that 15-month-old toddlers looked longer at a video in which two people were given an unequal distribution of milk and crackers, versus a video in which the people received equal portions of milk and crackers. Measuring how long babies fixate on a scene is a proven method for working with study participants who can’t yet talk. They gaze longer when things are unexpected, nonsensical, or, it turns out, when events violate the rules of equality.

But wait—toddlers’ sense of justice is even more complex. Turns out toddlers are also attuned to the concept of equal pay for equal work. A study in the journal Psychological Science had 21-month-olds watch a live scene where two lab assistants were told, “If you put the toys away, you can have a sticker!” Then, one of two things happens. Either both the assistants clean the toys up equally and each earns a sticker—a clear example of proportional rewards; or, one cleans while the other slacks off and keeps playing, but once the toys are all put away, they each get a sticker—a clear example of inequitable reward. The 21-month-olds looked significantly longer at the unequal scene—a finding that the researchers interpreted to mean they were not okay with the slacker getting rewarded.

Whether this means that a sense of justice is hardwired or that we learn the rules of society before our second birthdays, it’s clear that even before they can explain themselves, babies can spot when someone gets the shaft.

So, Does Revenge Work?

This brings us to Melissa’s question about revenge. Does it work? Should we make like Demi Lovato and get revenge while looking like a ten? If your name is Earl, should you watch your back for The Dixie Chicks?


Medical Disclaimer
All content here is for informational purposes only. This content does not replace the professional judgment of your own mental health provider. Please consult a licensed mental health professional for all individual questions and issues.

About the Author

Ellen Hendriksen, PhD

Dr. Ellen Hendriksen is a clinical psychologist at Boston University's Center for Anxiety and Related Disorders (CARD). She earned her Ph.D. at UCLA and completed her training at Harvard Medical School. Her scientifically-based, zero-judgment approach is regularly featured in Psychology Today, Scientific American, The Huffington Post, and many other media outlets. 

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